Catalog                                                         July  2010
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Ask Dr. Slagle
Give a man health and a course to steer, and he'll never stop to trouble about whether he's happy or not ~ George Bernard Shaw 
When you go to a restaurant or are grocery shopping, remember the health benefits of the omega-3 fatty acids found primarily in fish.  When you are deciding which nutritional supplements are the most important for you to take, think fish oil unless you eat fish almost every day.   Research results are regularly being published as the scientific community discovers more of the amazing benefits of these critical nutrients. 
 Omega-3 essential fatty acids (EFA's) are polyunsaturated fats, also called "good fats". They are required for normal development and functioning. Omega-3's are involved in each cellular function in the body. Every cell  is surrounded by a cell membrane composed of fatty acids. This cell membrane allows proper amounts of the necessary nutrients to enter the cell while making sure waste products are quickly removed.
The three most nutritionally important omega-3 fatty acids are alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). ALA is the only one of these which is essential. The word essential means these fats must be obtained in the diet or from supplements because they cannot be made in the body. Clinical studies show that omega-3 benefits primarily come from DHA & EPA.  Under optimal conditions, ALA is converted by the body into  EPA and DHA. This conversion involves a series of chemical reactions such as delta-6 desaturase. For many people these enzymes driving the reactions do not function properly allowing only a small amount of the ALA consumed to be converted to EPA & DHA. So it is best to receive your omega-3s in the DHA & EPA forms.
 If you eat very healthfully or are well supplemented with sufficient amounts of the following nutrients, that  will help increase the activity of your desaturase enzymes for converting dietary ALA to EPA and DHA.  This might be important for vegetarians who do not want any animal products.
The benefits of Omega 3 are not only wide-ranging, but are demonstrated by multiple clinical studies indicating omega-3's:
Reduce Allergies:  Increased intake of omega-3 fatty acids may help resolve some or all of the symptoms of many types of allergies.  The symptoms due to inflammation can include itching, hives, and rashes, hay fever, asthma, food sensitivities, eczema, and sinus infections.  You need to be patient because it may take some time. But if you combine a natural anti-inflammatory with dietary and lifestyle changes, you will see results.
It is important to note that while omega-3 fatty acids trigger the release of anti-inflammatory molecules, excess omega-6 fatty acids relative to the omega-3 intake can do the opposite by triggering the release of inflammatory chemicals. The ideal ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 ranges from 4:1 to 1:1. Yet the typical American diet has a ratio of about 10:1.  It is the imbalance which can be pro-inflammatory.  Excess omega-6 is obtained from a diet full of  processed foods, vegetable oils, meats and dairy.  Omega-6 fatty acids, such as borage oil, evening primrose oil, and black currant seed oil  have many benefits to be addressed in another newsletter. It is usually not wise to supplement the omega-6 EFA's without first supplementing at least twice as much of the omega-3's. So for help in relieving conditions caused by inflammation, you must increase your omega-3 intake and decrease your omega-6 intake.
Provide freedom from pain and inflammation:  Allergies are only one of the conditions basically caused or made worse by chronic inflammation.  Chronic inflammation is involved in any condition ending in “itis”, such as arthritis, prostatitis, and cystitis, skin diseases, heart disease, immune system dysfunction, depression, anxiety, Alzheimer’s, digestive disorders and many other health conditions. Inflammation even plays a role in cancer formation and progression.
The EPA & DHA fish oil fatty acids, regulate your inflammatory response by reducing the amount of compounds causing pain and inflammation. Rising blood levels of omega 3’s decrease the pro-inflammatory chemicals, leukotriene B4, TNF alpha, Il-8, and thromboxane B2.
The Clinical Journal of Pain, Feb. 2010 reported on research on chronic pain.  Five patients suffering significant neuropathy (nerve) pain and diagnoses of fibromyalgia, carpal tunnel syndrome, cervical radiculopathy, burn injury, and thoracic outlet syndrome responded to treatment with omega-3's.  They were given 2400-7200 mg daily EPA-DHA daily.  They were evaluated by pre and post treatment pain surveys, objective clinical tools, and EMG nerve conduction studies.  All had clinically significant pain reduction and improved functioning up to as much as 19 months after treatment began.  No serious adverse effects were noted.
 Reduce the production of cytokines:  Atherosclerosis is partially caused by an inflammatory response triggered by chemicals in the body called cytokines.  Atherosclerosis is a condition in which fatty material collects along the walls of arteries. This fatty material thickens, hardens (forms calcium deposits), and may eventually block the arteries.  The inflammation furthers this process.
Play an important role in the production of Prostaglandin (a powerful hormone-like substances):  Prostaglandins are important to many physiological functions in the body. These include kidneys & gastrointestinal functions, blood pressure, blood clotting, and nerve transmission.
Improve Cardiovascular Health:  EPA and DHA in fish oil have been demonstrated to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease by helping to lower cholesterol, triglycerides, LDLs and blood pressure, while at the same time increasing good HDL cholesterol. Fish Oil fatty acids also helps to prevent heart attack & stroke by decreasing blood platelet aggregation (clumping) and breaking up clots before they cause any damage.
The lining of the arteries is made up of endothelial cells.  Omega-3's decrease production of a platelet derived growth factor produced by endothelial cells.  This inhibits thickening and therefore narrowing of the arteries.
Endothelial cells also produce nitric oxide which causes the arteries to relax & dilate. Omega 3’s increase the activity of endothelium-derived nitric acid.
The American Heart Association recommends two servings of fish a week for healthy persons and one serving per day of fish or a fish oil supplement containing at least 900 mg of fish oil for persons with heart disease. I recommend at least 1 gram twice daily.
Improves Mood:  Persons suffering from mood disorders such as depression benefit from fish oil supplementation and Omega 3. Studies have shown depressed people have reduced RBC membrane or serum DHA and EPA.
Researchers at the University of Sheffield and many other studies found that fish oil supplements alleviated the symptoms of depression, bipolar disorder and psychosis. Dosages needed for psychiatric conditions may be up to 9 grams daily.
In a study conducted in Norway involving nearly 22,000 participants it was revealed that those who regularly took cod liver oil, which is rich in omega-3 fatty acids, were about 30% less likely to have symptoms of depression than those who did not. The longer the participants took cod liver oil, the less likely they were to have high levels of depression.
The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland studied the effect of supplementation with omega-3 fatty acid along with standard psychiatric care on 49 patients with repeated episodes of harming themselves. The patients were randomly assigned to receive 1200 mg EPA plus 900 mg DHA, or placebo, for 12 weeks.
After the 12 weeks, the group receiving omega-3 fatty acids showed significantly greater improvements in scores for depression, suicide and daily stress than the group receiving the placebo.
Additional studies have found that  people taking antidepressant medications and still suffering from depression, may have reduced intensity of depression, anxiety, sleep disturbances, and sexual dysfunction when supplementing with omega-3 fatty acids.
A review of 35 randomized controlled trials on omega-3 fatty acids and depression revealed the more severe the depression, the more likely omega-3's will help to improve mood.  They found the EPA component to be more effective with depression than the DHA component.
Improve Memory and Brain Function:  Omega 3 fatty acids comprise 8% of the average human brain. A recent study found that ageing people who consumed more omega-3's had increased gray matter brain volume. The function of gray matter is to route both sensory and motor stimuli through connecting neurons to create a response to the stimuli through a chemical synapse.
Omega-3's  are also  believed to help fortify the myelin sheaths, to help the brain repair damage by promoting neuronal growth, to modulate dopaminergic neurotransmission in certain areas of the brain, and to impact signal transduction inhibition in the brain.
DHA and fish oil have been proven to improve memory, recall, reasoning, focus, the ability to learn, and to reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease.
 Additional research has shown that mothers taking supplemental DHA while pregnant may increase the IQ of their babies.  Another study revealed children of mothers who consumed the least omega-3 were 48% more likely to score in the lowest 25% on IQ tests.
Studies have also shown fish oil to be very effective in the treatment of ADD, ADHD, development coordination disorders, dyslexia, dyspraxia, anxiety, aggression, compulsive disorders and  schizophrenia.
In a randomized controlled trial 92 children with ADHD were given EPA for 15 weeks.  Opposition, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness improved.
Compared to a placebo in a control group autistic children with severe behaviour problems were significantly improved with 840mg EPA daily and 700mg DHA.
Double blind studies have shown “medium to strong treatment effects of omega 3 fatty acids on symptoms of ADHD” after taking 1 gram daily for 3-6 months.
 Reduce the Symptoms of PMS:  Omega-3 is converted into 'prostaglandins type-3' -components that control contractions of the uterus.  Omega 3s also seem to relieve menstrual cramps  by affecting the metabolism of prostaglandins (natural substances which seem to play a central role in menstrual discomfort)
This was suggested  by 2 recent studies:
  • Study 1:  involved 42 young women ages 15 to 18.  During this 4 month study half the participants received a daily dose of 6 g of fish oil, providing 1,080 mg of EPA and 720 mg of DHA daily for the first 2 months then they were switched to placebo for the last 2 months.  The other group received the same treatments in reverse order.  The results showed significantly less menstrual pain was experienced when each group was  taking fish oil supplements.
  • Study 2: A Danish study  involving 78 women showed those who supplemented their diet withomega-3 fatty acids along with vitamin B12 found relief from menstrual pain, fatigue and headache.  The researchers performing this study concluded that omega-3s and vitamin B12 may serve as an alternative treatment to NSAID pain medication.
Promote Eye Health:  Consuming high quantities of omega 3 fish oil appears to lower the risk of developing both dry eye & macular degeneration, an increasing common eye disease in people over 50.  Many doctors recommend fish oil for general eye health as well.
A recent cross sectional study of 2520 randomly selected 65-84 year old subjects indicated those eating fish & shellfish high in omega-3 fatty acids received some protection against Advanced Age Related Macular degeneration (AMD).
Help maintain normal weight:  Omega-3’s stimulate the secretion of the hormone leptin, which improves the body’s response to insulin, & helps regulate food intake, metabolism & body weight.
May help reduce the risk of breast cancer in older women:  A new study concluded that older women might be able to reduce their risk of developing breast cancer by taking daily fish oil supplements.
 Emily White, an epidemiologist at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, and her colleagues conducted this study.  They recruited more than 35,000 postmenopausal women with no history of breast cancer, and had them complete a dietary questionnaire regarding their intake of non-vitamin, non-mineral specialty supplements.
While monitoring the participants for 6 years, the researchers found that a total of 880 women had developed breast cancer.  Based on the answers given on the dietary questionnaires, it was discovered that women who routinely took fish oil supplements had a 32% reduced risk of developing invasive ductal breast cancer, the most common form of the disease.
White and her colleagues note that the findings need to be replicated in a randomized trial to confirm the link between fish oil supplements and a reduction in breast cancer risk.
The results of the study "reinforce something that most of us feel in our hearts but are struggling to prove," David Pearlstone, chief of the division of breast surgery at Hackensack University Medical Center, told "Fish oil probably is really good for you in a lot of ways, but the data has been [slow] in coming."
 Effect cell growth:  Research has shown omega-3 fatty acids effect cell growth by activating the enzyme sphingomyelinase that then generates the release of ceramide.  Ceramide is a compound that induces the expression of the human tumor suppressor gene p21, which eventually causes tumor cell death.
 The activation of a single gene, p21, appears to be involved in the pathogenesis of not only cancer but also several age-related diseases, including arthritis, atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. This was reported in the April 11th issue of the  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
In recent experiments, mice were fed diets rich in either omega-3(fish oil) or omega-6(corn oil) then implanted with breast cancer cells.  After 3 weeks the mice on the omega-3 rich diet had  significantly lower  tumor size & weight.  Lab cultures showed cells treated with DHA or EPA had an increase of 30-40% of sphingomyelinase activity & breast cancer cell growth decreased by 20-25%.
May help decrease rectal polyps:  This study involved patients with Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP).   A double-blind randomized placebo controlled trial of 2 grams daily of EPA-FFA's for 6 months produced a 22% decrease in polyp number & a 30% decrease in polyp size.
The EPA was given twice daily with food.  The EPA was used in the free fatty form not a variable mix of omega-3”s. The preparation was 99% pure EPA with no DHA.
Mark Hull M.D., PhD,   gastroenterologist pursued the study on the preface “ It is known that intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) seems to be protective against colorectal cancer.”
May Help With Fertility:  In a study, proven fertile men had higher blood and sperm levels of omega-3's compared with infertile men.  The results suggested further research be perofrmed to assess possible benefits of omega-3 FA's in treating idiopathic infertility in men.
May Help withAbsorption in those with Malabsorption Disorders:  The Fat soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K were absorbed better when given together with omega-3 fatty acids than when given alone  in those with malabsorption from gastrointestinal disease.
Improve Skin and Hair Health:  Fish oil helps protect the skin against damage from UV exposure, helps to prevent wrinkles, and delays the aging process of the skin. Omega 3 is also known to play a critical role in regulating cellular function and maintaining elasticity and suppleness of the skin.
This is only the beginning of the many benefits of omega 3 fish oil. Research is still being conducted to learn more about this essential oil.
In a previous newsletter I mentioned the availability of a test you can do at home to measure your omega-3 levels. If you are at risk for any of the conditions associated with low omega-3, I suggest you take this test.
When you supplement fish oil, it is critical you use a quality product from a reputable company who gets purity assays done on their fish oil.  This is because some fish oils may be contaminated with mercury, dioxins, and PCB's. There have been lawsuits against fish oil manufactures who produced contaminated products.
The following  are excellent sources of Omega-3:
Here is a list of Foods rich in omega-3:
Food Serving
Size Cals Amount
(%) Nutrient
Density World’s
Foods Rating
2 Tbs
0.25 cup
Salmon, chinook, Mackerel & Herring baked/broiled
4 oz wt
Oregano, dried & ground
2 tsp
Very good
Cauliflower, boiled
1 cup
Very good
Mustard seeds
2 tsp
Very good
Cabbage, shredded, boiled
1 cup
Very good
Broccoli, steamed
1 cup
Very good
Cloves, dried & ground
2 tsp
Very good
Romaine lettuce
2 cup
Brussel sprouts, boiled
1 cup
Winter squash, baked, cubes
1 cup
Tofu, raw
4 oz, wt
Summer squash, cooked, sliced
1 cup
Halibut, baked/broiled
4 oz, wt
Collard greens, boiled
1 cup
Spinach, boiled
1 cup
Kale, boiled
1 cup
1 cup
Shrimp, steamed/boiled
4 oz, wt
Turnip greens, cooked
1 cup
4 oz, wt
1 cup
Green beans, boiled
1 cup
Snapper, baked/broiled
4 oz, wt
Scallops, baked/broiled
4 oz, wt
Tuna, yellowfin, baked/broiled
4 oz, wt
1 cup
1 oz
The following links are useful for further study on the benefits of Omega 3 fatty acids:
Until Next Month

PRISCILLA SLAGLE, M.D. or Cathy Jones, Assisitant
Phone: 1 (760) 322-7797
Fax: 760-322-7608
In this Issue:

Health Benefits of Nuts
Let’s face it nuts are high in both fats & calories and it is almost impossible to eat just a few.  But if you do not over indulge, nuts can definitely be part of a healthy diet. All nuts are rich in protein, antioxidant nutrients,  B vitamins ,magnesium, potassium, calcium , and most of the other minerals,  folic acid vitamin E, fiber, and  fatty acids, (the "good fats"). 
 Almonds, walnuts and pistachio nuts have been the most studied for health benefits.  Walnuts contain the most omega -3 fatty acids. Chestnuts and soynuts are lowest in  calories.  Macadamia and Brazil nuts are highest in calories. Almonds are high in the amino acid tryptophan. Chestnuts, macadamia nuts and pecans have the least protein. Also try cashews,  pine nuts, hazelnuts, and peanuts. Peanuts need to be kept very fresh as they are subject to a fungus that generates poisons called aflatoxins which can also be allergenic. Peanuts and soy nuts are technically part of the legume, not nut family, but people include them when thinking of nuts, so we will too. 
 Seeds are also very healthy such as sunflower, pumpkin, and sesame.  The whole nut or seed provides better health benefits and is less fattening than the oils.  Flax seeds and Flax seed oil are also a good source of the ALA Essentail Fatty Acids. Only oil from fish contains the longer chain fatty acids EPA & DHA.
On average, one ounce of nuts provides about 3-4  grams of protein, between 100-150 calories, and about 8-10 grams of fat.   
Although the health benefits of nuts are numerous, here is just a small sample:
Cardiovascular benefits:
Most nuts are rich in heart-friendly polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats. Research has shown people who consume a small handful of nuts at least 3-4 times a week reduce their risk for heart disease and stroke by half compared to those who consumed no nuts.
Individual studies conducted by the Adventist Health Study, the Iowa Women's Health Study, the Nurses' Health Study, and the Physicians' Health Study when combined looked at hundreds of thousands of individuals and found that nuts can indeed decrease the risk of heart disease.
In July 2003, the FDA approved the  heart health claim for almonds, hazelnuts, peanuts, pecans,  pine nuts, pistachios and walnuts as these nuts contain less than 4g of saturated fats per 50g.
 This claim can be used on package labels and states:
"Scientific evidence suggests, but does not prove, that eating 1.5 ounces per day of some nuts, as part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol, may reduce the risk of heart disease."
Cholesterol-lowering benefits:
Nuts are rich in monounsaturated fats. This helps decrease the low-density lipoproteins (the bad cholesterol, or LDL) from the blood, without lowering the good HDL cholesterol levels. It is the oxidized LDL that causes plaque deposits to be formed on the inside of arterial walls, leading to atherosclerosis (hardening and blockage of arteries) and ultimately to cardiovascular diseases such as heart attack and stroke.
In one small study, 17 men with high cholesterol ate about 1.5 to 3.5 ounces of macadamia nuts each day. After four weeks, their total cholesterol dropped an average of 3% and their bad LDL cholesterol dropped 7%. The results were published in The Journal of Nutrition in 2003.

Amount and Type of Fat in Various Nuts

Type of Nut

Saturated Fat (%)
Monounsat. Fat (%)
Polyunsat. Fat (%)
Hazel Nuts
English Walnuts
Macademia Nuts
Brazil Nuts
Lowering blood pressure;
Nuts contain a large amount of l-arginine  an amino acid that enhances the production of nitric oxide in the body. Nitric oxide helps relax the arteries making them more flexible and less prone to blood clots.
Reducing the risk of developing Type 2 Diabetes:
Eating nuts will make you less prone to diabetes.  Since nuts are very low on the glycemic index scale,  including them in your daily diet is helpful for your blood sugar.  Research suggests the risk of developing type 2 diabetes appears to decrease as nut eating increases from less than once a week, to eating nuts once or more per day.
 A new study conducted by researchers at the University of Toronto produced findings that nuts may be a vital way to manage diabetes. Results show that nuts may improve blood lipid levels and blood sugar levels in individuals with non-insulin dependent diabetes (type 2 diabetes).
Researchers from Harvard studied more than 83,000 women for over 16 years and found that those who reported eating a handful of nuts or two tablespoons of peanut butter at least five times a week were more than 20% less likely to develop adult onset (type II) diabetes than those who rarely or never ate nuts.  This is due to the fiber and magnesium in nuts helping to maintain balanced insulin and glucose levels.  It is considered that the results apply to men as well as women.
 Other research shows that cashews can help to reduce triglyceride levels in people with diabetes.
Weight control:
Studies have shown judicious nut eating is very helpful when it comes to losing weight.
Because nuts are high in vitamins, minerals, nutritious calories, healthy fats, and protein, they help decrease your appetite providing a sense of satiation.  The fats in nuts take longer to digest, so you also feel full longer after eating them.  The  unsaturated fats found in nuts also contain the hormone adiponection which helps your body to break down fat cells.
Helps with menopausal symptoms:
A study in the Archives of Internal Medicine 2007: 167: 1060-1067 reported ½ cup of soy nuts daily for 8 weeks significantly reduced menopausal symptoms and also reduced blood pressure in those who were hypertensive.
Removes free radicals:
Nuts are loaded with antioxidants like vitamin E and selenium.  Selenium has been found to be beneficial in the fight against free radicals, which contributes to premature aging, among other things.  Ridding your body of free radicals also reduces the risk of cancer and all kinds of age-related degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, macular degeneration, arthritis, etc.  Nuts also seem to prevent the formation of gallstones due to their high magnesium content.
Hands down, nuts offer numerous benefits.   The best benefits are from raw nuts which have not been processed with oils. Organic is even better, when possible.  Oil processing also adds about 10% to the calories. You can purchase dry roasted nuts, which are preferable.  Cashews are always roasted, as they are toxic when raw.  The higher temperature of oil roasted processed nuts containing high levels of the amino acid asparagine  may increase acrylamides, a possible issue re cancer when in high levels...but this is still being researched by the FDA.
So if you prefer the taste of roasted nuts, you can roast your own  at lower temperatures.
 Here are the basic directions to dry roast nuts.
1. Heat your oven to 160 degrees F.
2. Spread nuts on an ungreased cookie sheet.
3. Bake for approximately 10 minutes or until they are golden brown and fragrant.
4. Check to make sure that a test nut has the proper crunch when bitten into. It should taste toasted, not bitter or burnt.  
Note that because of their high oil content, the nuts will continue to roast after you remove them from the oven.
With all this encouraging information, be sure not to go nuts for nuts because they are so tasty!  Eat 1-2 small handfuls daily of a variety of nuts and seeds.....not a whole can or jar, so easy to do.  So, I say Nuts to you!

Healthy GI Tract
The GI Tract takes a lot of abuse. If you think about your diet for a moment and all the unhealthy things and strange combinations you ingest, you can imagine the strain the GI tract is under. Like all parts of the body, the GI tract has its own way of communicating problems to you. Hard stools, chronic constipation, diarrhea, excessive gas, light colored floating stools, and stomach aches all signal trouble. The problems might be minor, or they might be developing into more serious medical issues.
Keep your GI tract running smoothly and follow these essential pointers: 
  • Increase your fiber intake. Hard stools are usually a signal that you are not taking in enough fiber. Add more fruits, vegetables, legumes and nuts to your diet, or take a fiber supplement.
  • More fluids. Hydrate with water, low-sugar juices, fruits and vegetables with high water content, or herbal teas. 
  • Reduce meats. Meats and cheeses in excess can create harder stools and put more strain on the GI tract. Give your body a break and get more protein from vegetable sources.

Your Brain on Cigarettes
It's no secret that smoking cigarettes has a negative impact on your health, and the health of those around you. The message that smoking is bad for you is not a new one, and it's easy for us to ignore because we have been hearing it for so long.  The dangers don't seem a concern for the more than 45 million smokers who light up every day. 
We have all heard that cigarette smoke will lead to deteriorating heath: decreased lung capacity, emphysema, and cardiovascular problems. These health problems,that most people do not notice until it’s too late, are not the only problems caused by smoking.
There are a number of other side effects that we often overlook. Have you ever considered the impact that smoking cigarettes has on the rest of the body?
Smoking cigarettes actually has a huge impact on the brain’s neurotransmitter, dopamine. Dopamine is one of the chemicals in the brain that elevates pleasure and makes you feel good. But while the nicotine in cigarettes is making you feel good, other chemicals in cigarettes, including carbon monoxide, are affecting your brain capacity. Smoking may soothe your stress, but you are essentially damaging motor-skills and short-term memory.
Of course, our brain isn’t the only part of our body that we overlook when we consider the negative impact of smoking.
Smoking depletes your body of vitamins A, B1, B2, B5, B6, Vitamins C, and E, and the amino acid cysteine.  Some of these deficiencies are responsible for the negative skin changes in smokers and the vertical lines out from the lips. Smoking uses up about 25 mg of vitamin Cper cigarette and smokers are found to have below normal levels of vitamin C.  Smoking stains your teeth and encourages periodontal disease. Couples who smoke have decreased fertility. Smoking has also been linked to cancer in the lungs, bladder, esophagus, kidneys, pancreas, and cervix, mouth, throat.  Thomas Sellers Ph.D. , M.P.H. Associate Director, Cancer Prevention & Control at the H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute has stated eliminating smoking would reduce all cancer-related mortality by 30 percent.  Pretty dramatic!

Priscilla Slagle, M.D. is in the private practice of Nutritional and Functional Medicine & Psychiatry in Palm Springs, California.
Dr. Slagle has incorporated vitamins, minerals, amino acids, herbs, natural hormones & other natural substances into her practice since 1975.  She is one  of the pioneers in the Alternative Medicine Field.
Her classic book, The Way Up From Down  presents her natural "precursor" methods for lifting low moods, and depression as well as  relieving the negative effects of stress.